MODALES has successfully completed its first year, addressing the definition of low-emission factors. MODALES Members VTT, Spark and the University of Leeds, coordinated by Dr Haibo Chen of the University of Leeds Institute for Transport Studies, gathered together the current international knowledge of vehicular emissions to define key factors ranging from the driving and maintenance behaviour of individual car users to the real effectiveness of OBD (On-Board Diagnostics) systems and retrofits, as well as the legal situation of tampering in different EU Member States.

This content is publicly available in MODALES’ deliverable section and consists of three documents:

  • Deliverable 2.1: Variability of driving behaviours and Low-emission driving requirements (lead partner: University of Leeds). This report focuses on two key aspects. Firstly, variability in driving behaviours, which sets out the MODALES consortium’s understanding of the link between different types of driving behaviour and emissions. Secondly, low emission driving requirements builds on the understanding of existing low-emission driving programmes and projects to help set out what we need in order to realise the objective of low emission driving.
  • Deliverable 2.2: Real effectiveness of OBD inspection and maintenance, and retrofits (lead partner: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland) This deliverable addresses three main themes: 1) detecting high-emitting vehicles with periodic tests, 2) probing the performance of Emissions after-treatment (EAT) system by on-board diagnostics (OBD), and 3) assessing the potential of lowering the harmful emissions of vehicles by retrofitted EAT devices.
  • Deliverable 2.3: Legal situation of tampering (lead partner: Spark Legal Network) This report provides a comparative analysis identifying the commonalities and contrasts in legislation on vehicle tampering across a selection of EU Member States based on data collected through legal research questionnaires as well as a stakeholder survey.